Biodegradation is nature's way of recycling wastes, or breaking down organic matter into nutrients that can be used by other organisms. 'Degradation' means decay, and the 'bio-' prefix means that the decay is carried out by a huge assortment of bacteria, fungi, insects, worms and other organisms that eat dead material and recycle it into new forms.
In nature, there is no waste because everything gets recycled. The waste products from one organism become the food for others, providing nutrients and energy while breaking down the waste organic matter. Some organic materials will break down much faster than others, but all will eventually decay.
By harnessing these natural forces of biodegradation, people can reduce waste and clean up some types of environmental contaminants. Through composting, we accelerate natural biodegradation and convert organic wastes to a valuable resource.